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SQL Server FAQ - What Is SQL Language

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What Is SQL Language?

SQL, SEQUEL (Structured English Query Language), is a language for RDBMS (Relational Database Management Systems).

During the 1970s, a group at IBM's San Jose research center developed a database system "System R" based upon Codd's model. Structured English Query Language ("SEQUEL") was designed to manipulate and retrieve data stored in System R. The acronym SEQUEL was later condensed to SQL.

SQL was adopted as a standard by ANSI (American National Standards Institute) in 1986 and ISO (International Organization for Standardization) in 1987. Since then, SQL standard has gone through a number of revisions:

  • 1986, SQL-86 or SQL-87 - First published by ANSI. Ratified by ISO in 1987.
  • 1989, SQL-89 - Minor revision.
  • 1992, SQL-92 or SQL2 - Major revision (ISO 9075).
  • 1999, SQL:1999 or SQL3 - Added regular expression matching, recursive queries, triggers, non-scalar types and some object-oriented features.
  • 2003, SQL:2003 - Introduced XML-related features, window functions, standardized sequences and columns with auto-generated values (including identity-columns).
  • 2006, SQL:2006 - ISO/IEC 9075-14:2006 defines ways in which SQL can be used in conjunction with XML.

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  1. What Is SQL Language?
  2. What Is Transact-SQL Language?
  3. What Is a Transact-SQL Statement?
  4. How To Start and End Transact-SQL Statements?
  5. How To Enter Comments in Transact-SQL Statements?
  6. What Is a Transact-SQL Statement Batch?
  7. What Happens to a Statement Batch If There Is a Compilation Error?
  8. How To Use GO Command in "sqlcmd"?
  9. How To Create User Messages with PRINT Statements?
  10. How Many Categories of Data Types Used by SQL Server?
  11. What Are Exact Numeric Data Types?
  12. What Are Approximate Numeric Data Types?
  13. What Are Date and Time Data Types?
  14. What Are Character String Data Types?
  15. What Are Unicode Character String Data Types?
  16. What Are Binary String Data Types?
  17. What Are the Differences between CHAR and NCHAR?
  18. What Are the Differences between CHAR and VARCHAR?
  19. What Are the Differences between DECIMAL and FLOAT?

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